"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075. Published since July 1957.


 "Asia and Africa today" № 10 2015



Azia&Afrika 10-2015


 Top Problem

SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANISATI- ON (SCO): THE NEW CONTOURS OF THE EURASIAN INTEGRATION by N.I.Kozyrev, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary; D.A.Sidorov, PhD (Political Science), Diplomatic Academy
Keywords: Russia, China, India, Central Asia, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, SCO, regional cooperation, network diplomacy
The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) passed a resolution to initiate the procedures of granting India and Pakistan full membership of the organization at the 15th SCO summit in Ufa. Both countries will become full-fledged members of SCO at the Tashkent Summit in 2016. The SCO elevated also Belarus to the status of observer from dialogue partner, and took in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Cambodia and Nepal as new dialogue partners. Russian and Chinese leaders considered also possibility to combine two regional projects - The Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt. The two projects would be combined under the auspices of the SCO, and if the proposal is completed, it would make the preeminent economic body in the multipolar world. The article is devoted to perspectives of further Shanghai Cooperation Organization expansion. Also, it provides analysis of currently SCO observer states policies, their motivation for becoming fully-fledged member states of the organization. Furthermore, the paper analyses possible impact of SCO expansion on the efficiency of the organization.

MILITARY-TECHNICAL COOPERATION OF RUSSIA WITH AFRICA by E.N.Korendyasov, PhD (Economics), Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)
Keywords: Russia - Africa, African arms market, military-technical cooperation, the national army
The leaders of “Rosoboronexport” - the only one Russian-venous intermediary on export/ import of the entire spectrum of the military products, technologies and of military and dual-purpose services claim: “Russia is coming back in earnest and for the long to the African market of arms”. Soviet military activity in Africa predetermined by the arms race initiated by the West and on the continent.
The collapse of the Soviet Union and transition to the market economy was accompanied by a significant drop in exports of Russian military products to African countries, reduced the number of African partners.
However, in the beginning of the XXI century, Russian arms exporters have started a new offensive on the African continent. A breakthrough took place in
2006, when a large package of contracts for the supply and modernization of arms and military equipment, including fighter jets, submarines, anti-aircraft missile systems, and others was signed with Algeria.


 Policy, Economy

CORRUPTION STRUGGLE IN CHINA: POLITICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS by P.V.Troschinsky, PhD (Law), Institute of Far Eastern Studies, RAS
Keywords: corruption, Chinese anti-corruption system, severity of criminal liability, high-profile corruption cases, indefinite and vague formulations in the Chinese legislation
The article is devoted to fight of the Chinese state against corruption, to implementing of corruption eradication policy in the system of public authorities. Author analyses the content of existing instruments of law-making, which confirm the existence of Chinese anti-corruption system. The main focus is made on the severity of criminal liability applied to corrupt officials, including life imprisonment and the death penalty, property confiscation and political rights deprivation.
The article presents latest statistics of the fight against corruption, examples of law enforcement on the most high-profile corruption cases. The author emphasizes drastic approach of government leadership in the inevitability principle implementation of the legal liability for corruption offenses, regardless of occupied official position in society. At the same time the article indicates deficiencies in the legal regulation of anti-corruption, which are associated with the presence in the Chinese legislation indefinite and vague formulations that facilitate the growth of corruption among Chinese law enforcers.

THE PHENOMENON OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION by E.I.Zelenev, Dr.Sc. (History), National Research University Higher School of Economics - St. Petersburg
Keywords: Islam, Islamic education, phenomenon, madrasa, jihad, Boko Haram
Abstract: The paper studies Islamic education as a global phenomenon that has features typical for world culture. The author examines the works of prominent Islamic philosophers and scholars, such as Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Yusuf Waghid, and analyzes their ideas on Islamic education. Special attention in the paper is paid to such concepts of Islamic education as “cosmopolitism”, “compartmentalized mind”, “educational jihad” etc. Moreover, the paper discusses Boko Haram movement and philosophy of its founder and spiritual leader Mohammed Yusuf. The author comes to the conclusion that education has a significant impact on the behavior of politicians.

MONGOLIA: TROUBLED TIMES by M.I.Golman, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Mongolia, a government crisis, the state budget deficit, austerity measures, a strategic partnership with Japan
In June 2012, Mongolia passed the next parliamentary elections - the State Great Hural, in which the ruling Mongolian People’s Party (the party of former communists), and defeated in power, after a long break, came the Democratic Party (DP), which formed the coalition government headed by Prime Minister, chairman of the DP Norovyn Altankhuyag.
The article analyzes the political and economic situation in Mongolia, established over the past three years.

Keywords: Japan, Africa, foreign policy, economic assistance, investments in development assistance (ODA), Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD)
Throughout the last decades economic assistance was one of the pillars of Japan’s cooperation with African and other developing countries. It’s ODA and other forms of development assistance to Africa tend to increase, and field of its implication keeps growing wider. As an illustration we can adduce the creation and further activity of the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD). The article contains a brief history of Japan’s ODA evolution, mentioning its milestones, and names major external factors, that influenced it significantly. It also characterizes the latest tendencies in Japan’s assistance to African states against the background of its contemporary foreign policy towards Africa and global political developments. The article also observes the relation between Japan’s ODA to Africa and its economic picture, as well as the dynamics of its investment flows.

THE “COMFORT WOMEN” ISSUE IN JAPAN- ROK RELATIONS by A.A.Batakova, Moscow State University of International Relations (MGIMO)
Keywords: Japan-South Korean relations, problems of the historical past, “comfort women”, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, President Park Geun-hye
The article dwells upon the so-called “comfort women” issue in Japan-South Korean relations. It presents a brief review of the history of the problem since the early 90s and describes the process of formation of Tokyo’s and Seoul’s stances on the issue. The article mentions Japan’s steps to resolve the problem, including publishing the statement by Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono and establishing Asian Women’s Fund (1995-2007). The author points out the role of South Korean non-governmental organizations in emergence of the “comfort women” issue in bilateral Japan-South Korean relations, analyses Seoul’s policy of internationalization of the problem, and describes the correspondent position of the UN human rights bodies. The author focuses on the “comfort women” issue under Shinzo Abe and Park Geun-hye administrations and speculates on its impact on the bilateral Japan-South Korean relations.

ETHIOPIA: STAGNATE OR STABILITY? by S.V.Mezentsev, PhD (Military Sciences)
Keywords: Ethiopia, nation-building, the parliamentary elections, ethnic federalism, interconfessional relations
On May 24 parliamentary elections were held in Ethiopia. Given the fact that according to the constitution this African state is a parliamentary republic, the importance of this event can hardly be overestimated. For the third time in a row the ruling party’s Revolutionary Democratic Front Ethiopian People (EPRDF) has won the elections.
In what a political and economic state Ethiopia enters the next five-year phase of its development, and what country it will be by the next elections in 2020?


 Foreign Expert Opinion

FOUNDATION OF TERRORISM IN KENYA by Herman R. Butime (Uganda), PhD (Terrorism Studies)
Keywords: Kenya, radical Islamist groups, terrorism
In the post-cold war era Kenya has emerged as a target of radical Islamist groups. This article locates the roots of this phenomenon in Kenya’s alignment on the international stage and its strategic position in East Africa. In its confrontation with the Soviet Union, the United States assembled an anti-communist alliance riddled with ideological contradictions. America not only backed states and Non-State Armed Groups committed to the advancement of Western liberal democratic values but also those committed to a faith- based (mainly Islamist) approach to political organization. When the Berlin Wall fell, the incompatibility between the secular and faith-based strands in this anti-communist alliance erupted into a global confrontation which has affected Kenya courtesy of its relations with the West.


 Scientific Life

Center for the Study of Transition Economy Institute for African Studies held a scientific-practical seminar (head-manager - the director of the Centre E.V.Morozenskaya). 15 leading Russian Africanists delivered reports on various issues relevant to a new economic strategy of North and sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa.
These are the issues which were discussed: development of the energy sector, especially oil and gas, in different regions and individual countries of the continent; participatin of foreign capital - Western, Chinese, Indian; prospects for the steel industry and other industries; some aspects of the state industrial policy in the field of taxation, job creation, promotion of exports of raw materials; the problem of financing energy projects and Russia’s cooperation with Africa in the field.


 Post-Graduate Column

THE RUSSIAN SOUL IN THE KOREAN WORLD by Yu.S.Fayzrakhmanova, Vitus Bering Kamchatka State University
Keywords: Korea, Korean borrowed words, onomatopoeic words, hangul, han
This article discusses the way the Russians perceive the Korean language and some aspects of Korean culture from the linguistic and extra linguistic perspectives. Reactions of Russians to some Korean words and Korean culture, a wide range of emotions and new notions lacking in the Russian language but becoming a kind of password to the Russian community within the Korean culture world were analyzed. The article also deals with unique Russian soul and Korean han that have some common features.


 Culture, Literature, Art

JAPANESE CINEMA, YAKUDZA-EIGA, TAKESHI KITANO by E.L.Katasonova, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Far Eastern Studies, RAS
Keywords: Japanese cinema, Takeshi Kitano
The multi-talented Takeshi Kitano is a Japanese award-winning film director, actor, comedian, popular TV presenter, author, poet, painter etc. He is one of the few Japanese media personalities who is famous all over the world. His highly unique style and creative genius have kept him at the forefront of the Japanese cinema and television for decades.


 Book Review

PHENOMENOLOGY OF TROPICAL NAZISM by A.A.Panov, Institute for African Studies, RAS
The new book “One Hundred Days of Madness: Rwandan Genocide of 1994” (M., Higher School for Economics’ Publishing House, 2015, p. 528) by professor I.V.Krivushin is the first attempt of systematic analysis of the most tragic page in modern history of Rwandan state in Russia. Author considers the genocide as an outcome of tragic combination of Rwandan political culture, colonial heritage, shortsighted policy of the great powers and disregard for postcolonial Africa’s problems by international community. Special attention has been stressed on the analysis of human behavior during the genocide for both cases of its subjects and objects.

The review examines the contents of the book by K.P.Dudarev “Saudi Arabia. XXI century the homeland of Islam: from the World gas station “to Laboratory of innovation and perfection” (M., 2015). In this rather voluminous work virtually all aspects of political, social and economic life of the state are discussed, which makes the book a truly encyclopedic publications. This is explained by the fact that the author for many years lived and worked in Saudi Arabia. The book discloses in details all aspects of multilateral cooperation activities between Russia and KSA.


* Summary