"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075. Published since July 1957.


 "Asia and Africa today" № 11 2015



Azia&Afrika 11-2015


 Top Problem


NON- AND QUASI-STATE ACTORS OF THE GREAT MIDDLE EAST AND THE PHENOMENON OF EUROJIHADISM by L.L.Fituni, Dr.Sc. (Economics); I.O.Abramova, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Science (RAS)
Keywords: non-state actors, Islamism, Eurojihidism, Islamic State
The article analyzes the connection between the Arab Spring and the deterioration of international security situation stemming from the emergence and rise of new threats and challenges in the form of «Eurojihadism» and of the «Islamic State». Authors show how these twin phenomena fall inline with strategic arrangements of the USA and its junior allies aimed at the transformation of the Great Middle East and, more broadly, at the preservation of their dominating positions in global governance.

CHINA ON THE WORLD MARKET OF WEAPONRY by P.B.Kamennov, PhD (Political Science), Institute for Far Eastern Studies, RAS
Keywords: China, weaponry exporter, weaponry importer, export potential growth, dependability upon import, Russia-China’s military-technology cooperation
The author examines various aspects of the positioning of China on the world market of weaponry both as an exporter and importer of the military equipments in the context of realization of modernization of Chinese defense program up to the year of 2050.
This program gave up the growing of technology and production abilities of the Military-Industrial Complex (MIC) and as a result to improve it’s export potentials. This allowed China to increase volume and expand geography of supply of military weaponry and to take the third place in the world as an exporter of military items next to the United States and Russia. At the same time China remains dependent upon import of some high technology components of the weaponry.
Special attention is given to the analysis of the current situation, problems and prospects of the Russia-China’s military-technology cooperation. Author comes to the conclusion that in the near future China may become strong competitor to Russia in some segments of the world market.



USA AND CREATION OF MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEMS IN THE MIDDLE EAST by V.N.Konyshev, Dr.Sc. (Political Science), Saint- Petersburg State University; A.A.Sergunin, Dr.Sc.(Political Science), Saint-Petersburg State University
Keywords: missile defense system, USA, Middle East, security
The article deals with the specifics of American policy aimed at the creation of the missile defense system (MDS) in the region of the Middle East. It is based on the idea that the missile defense system will increase the security of the USA and its allies. The unfriendly states and in the future - the non-state actors are considered to be the main sources of missile attack threats. MDS are being created as a subsystem of the global missile defense system under American control. The deepest level of cooperation is developing with Israel. Authors concluded that US cooperation with countries of the region in the field of missile defense complex exacerbates conflicts between Israel and the Arab countries. It makes difficult for the United States to dialogue with Israel and with the Arab countries, as well as provokes armed race of high-tech weapons.


 Policy, Economy

INDIA. FOREIGN POLICY OF N. MODI’S GOVERNMENT by F.N.Yurlov, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: India, USA, China, Russia, BRICS, Shanghai Organization of Cooperation
This article discusses the main directions and problems of the foreign policy of the Indian government of led by prime-minister Narendra Modi. This government has come to power in May 2014. The new accents and problems of this policy are called into being by changed situation in the world in the last few years.
Special attention is paid to the relations with the U.S. and China which are by themselves immensely complicated. India has to consider not only its own relations with these two countries, and but at the same time to consider the complex relationship between these two world giants.
In this context the author analyses the Indian- Russian relations, which are currently not in their best shape. Nevertheless Russia continues to be India’s major partner in cooperation in the defense sphere.
Thus, the relations between our two countries are defined as a special strategic partnership. On its part, Russia strives to preserve this partnership. India responds positively but takes steps to diversify its defense ties with other countries. India’s cooperation with the West and Japan is counterbalanced by its participation in BRICS and Shanghai Organization of Cooperation. On the whole, the main features of the Indian foreign policy have not yet been completely defined. Their further development still depends on the dynamics of the international relations in Asia and in the world.

MIGRATION FROM NORTH AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST: WHO IS GUILTY AND WHAT TO DO by A.A.Tkachenko, PhD (Economics), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: North Africa, the Middle East, the European Union, external migration, armed conflict, the Arab Spring
In the second half of the twentieth century, particularly in the 1970s. migration abroad for economic (employment) and political reasons has become not only an important phenomenon of the social life of the countries of North Africa and the Middle East, but also the phenomenon of global importance.
In the period from 2002 to 2010 the number of illegal immigrants arriving each year to Europe from Africa is estimated at 20 thousand men. In 2014, it increased more than eight times, amounting to 169 thousand. The total number of migrants adopted by the EU countries in January-August 2015 exceeded 600 thousands, which is 3 times more than in the same period of 2014.

Keywords: China, agriculture, reform of agricultural sphere, contracting system
Village has always been a cornerstone of the economy, ensuring social stability of China. Thanks to the exceptional hard work of the Chinese peasantry agricultural production is steadily increasing, ensuring the ongoing development of the country.
Implementation of change and reform in the country helped to turn Chinese agriculture into a modern heavily modernized industry. That does not exclude the presence of complex problems and shortcomings.
Today the most urgent and important task facing China’s agriculture is a synchronous implementation of its industrialization, modernization and, normalization.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS ARE CONQUE- RING AFRICA by Z.S.Novikova, PhD (Economics), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: mobile telephony, Internet, “digital divide”, mobile internet-penetration
The telecommunications market in Africa is still in its early stage but it is also one of the fastest-growing in the world. During the 2000-s mobile telephony has been booming and nowadays it is substantially more widespread than fixed telephony. Mobile telephones are nowadays common phenomena in almost all countries in Africa. The Internet has a lower penetration when compared to the rest of the world. There is a grate “digital divide” between Africa and other continents due to the lack of communication infrastructure. The same grate “digital divide” exists within African countries themselves and it is widening.
Africa is the highest region with mobile internet- penetration. The percentage of internet- users that go online with a mobile device is much more than users with computer access. Forecasts suggest that mobile internet traffic across Africa will have a 20-fold increase by 2019. Africa has to complete the 2G and 2,5G revolution by extending GSM-services to all the vast areas of the continent. The third generation of mobile services 3G is planned to come up to 2020.

Keywords: Africa, FDI, TNC, capital, manufacturing, technology development, economic growth
The article considers the main aspects of foreign direct investments inflows (FDI) in African countries. Analyzed are trends and perspectives of total FDI inflow in sub regions and individual countries of the continent. Significant attention is given to both traditional FDI flows to capital-intensive extractive industries and flows to services sector (banks, retail and telecommunications) that maintain fast-growing middle class. Reviewed are the problems of forming investment policy in African countries that will be oriented to attract private investment business from abroad.

HOW TO HELP THE AFRICAN AMPUTEES by K.A.Tkachenko, PhD (Economics), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: military conflicts in Africa, postwar rehabilitation, human right organizations, impaired persons, amputees, innovative prosthetics technologies, crowd funding
This article reviews the ways of available help that can and should be provided to disabled Africans mutilated by the war conflicts on the Dark Continent. The author points at catastrophic situation of the crippled amputees in South Sudan and Sierra-Leone as well as the devastating impact of this situation on development of human capital and the necessity of taking measures for assisting the traumatized people to reintegrate into society and get a job.
The author analyzes both the high-tech and the low-cost technologies of manufacture of prosthetic limbs. Special attention is paid to the most recent successful projects of delivering the 3D-printing equipment to the African hospitals and making the remarkable technology available to the public.


 From Our Own Correspondent

GENERAL ELECTIONS IN ETHIOPIA by V.P.Nemchenko, our Staff correspondent in Ethiopia
Keywords: Ethiopia, general elections, Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, Blue Party, Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum (Medrek)
In the 2015 general elections to the lower house of the parliament - the House of Representatives (DPR) took place. The ruling Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front and its allies won 546 of 547 seats in the national parliament.
The African Union Election Observation Mission announced that the elections proceeded in a peaceful and calm atmosphere without reports of major incidents. Many opposition parties including Blue Party and Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum (Medrek) claimed the pools not free and fair, didn’t accept the results but didn’t sue the authorities. The next five years EPRDF will run the one of the most influential country on the continent.


 Post-Graduate Column

POSSIBLITIES OF PERMISSIBLE PROTEC- TIONISM by F.V.Malakhov, Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: government exports assistance, export credit agency, Export-Import Bank of the United States, the US trade policy, Sub-Saharan Africa, doing business in Africa
The article focuses on activity of the Export-Import Bank of the United States in sub-Saharan Africa over the recent years. As a state export credit agency Ex-Im Bank constitutes the core of the complex US system which promotes export and provides the protection of national exporters against from political and commercial risks, as well as from competition from foreign players in the SSA region.
It is shown how the Ex-Im Bank financial tools are used in SSA, its regional specifics are described. The distribution of financing among the SSA countries and the Ex-Im activities relationship with political decisions and exports performance are analyzed.


 Our interviews

For more than 10 years, our regular contributor Viktor Pogadaev is living and working in Malaysia, in the capital Kuala Lumpur. He is a professor at the University of Malaya - teaches the Russian language and culture to Malaysian students. Viktor - a graduate of the Moscow State University, a leading expert on the history and culture of the countries of Southeast Asia, member of the Russian Geographical Society and a very passionate person. During a visit to Moscow, he spoke to employs of our magazine about the specifics of his teaching.

THE ROLE OF KAVA IN OCEANIA by S.E.Pale, PhD (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Oceania, kava, culture, drink
This article overviews the traditional role of kava in Oceania. With a mild drug effect, kava is a drink popular all over the South Pacific Islands, making its adopters fight against banning this drink in the Western world. The author draws the views of those who are against or in favour of legalizing kava. The role of kava in the modern environments is also considered in this article.


 Book Review

USA - AFRICA - OBAMA: What unites and divides them into the modern world politics by N.I.Petrov
Institute of African Studies published a book summarizing the activities of the US president in the homeland of his ancestors - Africa over five years, beginning from January 20, 2009 - the day of Obama’s inauguration.
Author of the book «The US - Africa: policy administration of President Barack Obama. 2009-
2014» (2015, 208 p.) is Doctor of Historical Sciences, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the USSR/Russia, A.Yu.Urnov. The author has analyzed truly colossal material that characterizes the African course of Washington and the course of its implementation in the political, economic, humanitarian and military fields.
Among other advantages of work is a huge reference system, and a large number of materials used, to which the author refers to the extensive footnotes. Through carefully chosen links the reader can get acquainted with additional material on the subject of African American policy during the presidency of Barack Obama.

EUROPE AND AFRICA: THE TRADITIONAL AND THE NEW PARTNERSHIP by T.S.Denisova, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
The contacts between European countries and Africa have a long history, but the book by I.L.Lileev, PhD (Political Science), The Old World and Africa (M., IAS RAS, 2015, 109 p.) aims at studying the peculiarities of their interaction at the current moment, when the Old World is taking the configuration of a new state entity.

CHINA AND AFRICA: GROWING COOPERATION by S.V.Kostelyanets, PhD (Political Science), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: China, Africa, economic cooperation, trade, investment, development assistance
In the 21st century, the world has witnessed an unprecedented success in China’s economic development and foreign policy. Africa has become an object of China’s interest due to its hydrocarbon and mineral resources, which are required for the growth of the Chinese economy. The book under review, «China
‘wins’ Africa» by T.L.Deych, is the first in Russia to provide a comprehensive study of the phenomenon of Chinese economic expansion and political influence on the African continent.

GENDER DIMENSION IN  AFRICA by S.M.Shlenskaya, Institute for African Studies, RAS
A great contribution to the development of this issue has been made the Group of gender studies, created 25 years ago at the Institute for African Studies under the direction of Dr.Sc. N.L.Krylova and PhD N.A.Ksenofontova. They are concentrated around them not only colleagues from the Institute of Africa, but also from other scientific and educational institutions of Russia and foreign countries, Africa, those who are exploring gender issues.


* Summary