"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075. Published since July 1957.


 "Asia and Africa today" № 7 2016



Azia&Afrika 07-2016


 Top Problem

RUSSIAN AND CHINA’s EURASIAN PROJECT by A.I.Salitski, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Primakov Institute of World Economy and Inter- national Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS); N.K.Semenova, Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Russia, China, Economic Belt of the Silk Road, export of capital
The article gives a brief overview of the emergence and development of Chinese world project - «Joint construction of Economic Belt Silk Road and the Maritime Silk Road of the XXI c.». The authors consider vector, logic and consequences of this activity for the reclaimed areas, Chinese initiative to finance «One belt - one road» project. It’s underlined that Beijing is ready to make major investments into new international development banks and funds.
Five priorities of cooperation between those to will participate in the project are discussed, taking into account the balance of the current capabilities of the PRC and the partner countries’ needs.
The expert evaluation of the priorities of the project «Silk Belt» from the point of view of Russian interests is provided. According to the authors, the Chinese «silk» initiative has not yet received an adequate assessment in Russia. Meanwhile, the participation of our country in the China project is a prerequisite for a vigorous restructuring of Russian-Chinese relations. It will enrich their content meets the spirit of the time.


 Policy, Economy

THE XII CONGRESS OF THE CPV: evaluation by foreign politicians and experts by G.M.Lokshin, PhD (History), Institute of Far Eastern Studies, RAS
Keywords: Vietnam, XII Congress of the CPV, update, multi-vector, the South China Sea territorial disputes
The XII Congress of the Communist Party of Viet Nam hold in Hanoi on 21-28 January has become a serious historical milestone in the course of comprehensive and complex renovation of the country, which began with the fateful decisions of the VI-th Congress of the party in 1986. The last Congress attracted attention of many governments, political parties, scientists and various circles of various countries.


AFRICAN SUMMITS OF ASIAN POWERS: GENERAL AND SPECIAL by T.L.Deich, Dr.Sc. (History); V.A.Usov, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Africa, China, India, the summit, cooperation, competition, development
The last decade has witnessed rapid economic growth and rapid, though uneven, development of African States. Those developments have made even the skeptics to abandon the usual «Afro-pessimism».
New feeling - reserved «Afro-optimism» has caused a surge of enthusiasm for the future of the Black Continent, which displayed in conducting of bilateral forums: US - Africa, the European Union - Africa, Japan - Africa. Not only the leading Western powers, but also major developing countries - China, India, Brazil, Turkey, Iran and others held similar events.
Taken into account the volumes and forms of cooperation with African countries, special attention should be given to forums with the participation of «Asian giants» - China and India.


POLITICAL MODERNIZATION IN JAPAN. The impact of European and American practice by P.S.Varyushin, Post-graduate student; I.S.Tikhotskaya, PhD (Economics), Moscow State University
Keywords: Japan, political modernization, political model, the political system, electoral geography, US
Among the Asian countries Japan has the oldest traditions of parliamentarianism. Since the last quarter of the XIX-th century she was under the influence of the European parliamentary traditions. In the post-war years the Japanese parliamentarianism has absorbed the concepts of the American political system. As a result the parliamentary system of the country includes now days both the features of European, primarily German and Westminster, as well as of the American parliamentary system.
Last years, an active debate about the elimination of the third parties from the political process and the construction of a two-party system on the American model, as well as the building up of parties with clearly defined programs aimed at specific electoral resource programs modeled on the European political groups is going on in Japanese society.


TURKEY’S AFRICA POLICY: LOOKING FOR NEW PARTNERS by S.V.Kostelyanets, PhD (Political Science), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Turkey, Africa, political contacts, economic relations, energy, religious ties
The 2015 G-20 Summit took place in Antalya, Turkey on 15-16 November. On the proposal of Turkey, the G-20 Ministers of Energy met on October 2, 2015 in the framework of the summit. This was the first time such a meeting took place. The key topic of the discussion was energy development in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The same topic was also brought up at the summit of Heads of State. Turkey’s interest in Africa’s energy sector is not accidental. To date, Turkey is one of the fastest growing energy markets in the world.
Energy development is the main national project of Ankara. However, in the foreseeable future Turkey’s domestic demand will not be insufficient for rapidly growing Turkish energy companies, so they are turning to foreign markets. SSA has a population of about one billion people and an extremely low level of access to energy services, thus making it a huge potential market. What will facilitate the expansion of Turkish businesses in Africa is the progress that has been made in Turkish- African relations since the late 1990s.


Keywords: Tanzania, Muslim-Christian relationship, extremist and terrorist organizations, sheikh Ponda Issa Ponda, Uamsho, Ansar Sunna, al Hijra
Not long ago Tanzania was regarded in the scientific studies as an “Island of peace” against constant civil strife in other East African countries. However incidents of violence that exploded in the late 2012 and continued through the whole 2013 in the mainland as well as on Zanzibar, demonstrate how fragile and unstable was the situation.
So the need arises to find and explain the factors that have contributed to the current situation. The paper explores in detail the events of 2012-2013 linking them to the activities of extremist and terrorist organizations.


ARE CONFUCIUS INSTITUTES EDUCA - TIONAL CENTERS OR A PROPAGANDA TOOL? Case of Confucius Institute at Saint-Petersburg State University by S.V.Krivokhizh, PhD (History), Saint-Petersburg State University
Keywords: Confucius Institute, soft power, foreign policy of PRC, cultural diplomacy
Due to China’s growing efforts aimed at spreading of Chinese culture all over the world and intense work on constructing favorable image of the country abroad Confucius Institutes have come under- increasing scrutiny. The main declared aim of the organization is to accommodate foreigners in learning Chinese language. However controversies that have accompanied its international expansion push scholars to study this instrument of China’s public diplomacy in depth. The article analyses work of Confucius Institute at Saint-Petersburg state university focusing on critics of its work and discussing disputable moments. The author concludes host universities can benefit from Confucius Institutes.


INDIANS IN GEORGIA by I.Yu.Kotin, Dr.Sc. (History); E.V.Ezugbaya, Post-graduate student, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, RAS
Keywords: Indians, Punjab, Georgia, migration, Tbilisi, Kakhety region
The article deals with the new migrants in the Transcaucasian Republic of Georgia. The migrants came first as students and ended up as businessmen. Many of them used the possibility of land purchase or long-term rent due to the economical liberalization of the Georgian government. As the result around 7,000 Indians are living now in Georgia. 5,000 of them are agricultural farmers mostly working in the Georgian region of Kakhety. The newcomers received quite warm welcome but in some cases their use of land is complicated by the conflict between the state law and the traditional land rights of the agricultural communities.


 Point of View

ISLAMIC FINANCIAL MODEL: ADVANTAGES AND SHORTCOMINGS by I.A.Zaripov, PhD (Economics), Managing Executive Board Adviser of Bank ZENIT
Keywords: Islamic countries, revision of a paradigm of development, Islamic financial principles
Article provides an author’s view of the modern political and financial problems facing the majority of the Muslim countries of the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Africa. The author comes to conclusion about perforce of revision of a paradigm of economy’s development and transition to Islamic economic model either within the countries, or at the bilateral and international economic relations.
It’s known that Islamic financial institutions working under Shariah principles and denying usury (Riba), excessive risk (Maysir), uncertainty (Gharar) and forbidden activities (production and trade in alcohol, pork, the offensive weapon; traditional finance; and the adults industries), under the environment of the globally raising volatility and the financial crisis show stable growth.
The ethical finance based on more fair and humanistic confessional principles can stabilize economies of the Islamic and non-Muslim countries, having accumulated the assets of the population, which are not used until this time for religious reasons, and attracting foreign investments via approved Islamic financial instruments (products). The Islamic financial model can also weld the separate Islamic states, having created political stability via economic cooperation and unity of financial methods.


 Russia and The East

Keywords: Russian Far East, the Khabarovsk Area, the territories of advancing social and economic development (TASED), foreign investors
The subject of the article is attracting foreign investment to the territories of advancing social and economic development (TASED) of the Khabarovsk Area. TASEDs are effective means of stimulating the development of the Far Eastern region, of establishing enterprises for making of export products and improving the quality of people’s life in the region.
TASED in the Khabarovsk Area are supposed to be created in two sites - Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Khabarovsk. The article contains the analysis of the specificity of each of the sites and the prospects for their development.
It was decided that the project of creating TASEDs will be implemented with an active participation of both Russian and foreign investors to create. Some investors of the Asia-Pacific region have already informed us about their readiness to take part in the development of the Russian Far East territories. Today investors of China, Japan, and South Korea have been already drawn in to TASED of the Khabarovsk Area. The author has made an estimation of the prospects of investors’ participation in projects of the Khabarovsk Aria. The article contains the analysis of the potential of the parties. It was observed the positive impact of foreign companies on the development the territory of the Khabarovsk Area. The volume of foreign investments into the economy of the Khabarovsk Area is increasing, but nevertheless it’s still insufficient. The author offers the ways of attracting foreign investors into economy of the Khabarovsk Area.


 Traditions, Customs, Morals

AFRICAN ALBINOS: PROBLEMS OF SURVIVAL by N.V.Grishina, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: albinos, murder, violence, Africa, rituals, traditions.
The hunt for albinos for the purpose of receiving part of their bodies, allegedly miraculous drugs, is one of the realities of contemporary African countries which are to the South of the Sahara.Connection with demonic forces and negative impact on others are attributed to albinos. So people whose skin is deprived of natural dark pigmentation, since childhood, doomed to be outcasts of society and fight for survival. The measures taken by national governments and humanitarian organizations are insufficient to resolve socio-cultural problems.
CULTURE, LITERATURE, ART IMMIGRANT by A.Memmi, writer (Tunisia) From the Editor Today we publish (slightly abridged) the first excerpt from «Immigrant», one of the books by the French-speaking writer, Tunisian-born Albert Memmi. The second and final part will be published in the next issues.

A.Memmi is widely known in France, not only as a writer but also as a great scientist, philosopher, professor at the Sorbonne. Born in Tunisia in 1920 he is the author of well-known novels and journalistic portraits, translated in 20 countries into many languages.

 Book Review

EGYPT KNOWS ABOUT RUSSIAN SCIENTIST by K.V.Meshcherina, Post-graduate student, Institute for African Studies, RAS
January 2016 marked 160 years since the birth of one of the founders and the recognized authorities of Egyptology and Assyriology schools in Russia and world-Egyptologist scholar, collector and traveler Vladimir Golenishchev (1856-1947).
Various books in Russia and abroad include information about his life, his collection of oriental antiquities and scientific studies, just as some articles are written in the academic journals. However, a recently published book - «Golenishchev. A pioneer of Egyptology». (Cairo, Russia News. 2016. 182 p.) became in the words of its author Hussein el-Shafie, the first book in Arabic language, which is dedicated to the work of this Russian scientist.


FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA: TEXTS AND CONTEXTS by V.D.Sukhorukov, Dr.Sc. (Geogra- phy), Herzen State Pedagogical University, Saint- Petersburg
Modern Russian African studies don’t not much complex work on food issues. One of them is a collective monograph made by scientists of Institute for African Studies, RAS, - «Africa in the context of global food security» (Moscow. 2015, 288 p.).
It reveals the place of Africa among the regions of the world in terms of providing the population with food and food security of African countries. The publication brings together historians articles, geographers and economists, which allowed the team to show the author’s subject of study in a wide range of problems.


* Summary