"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075. Published since July 1957.


 "Asia and Africa today" № 11 2016



Azia&Afrika 11-2016


 Top Problem

RETURN. BUT HOW? by A.M.Vasiliev, Academician, Editor-in-Chief, “Asia and Africa Today” journal. Part 2
Keywords: Russian-Iranian cooperation, Iranian nuclear program, the Caspian Sea, future of Afghanistan
The Russian-Iranian relations in the first - the beginning of the 2-nd decade of the XXI century consisted of a combination of common interest and some controversy. With respect to the Iranian nuclear program, the Russian Federation has taken a clear position: no - to possible nuclear armament of Iran, yes - to peaceful use of nuclear energy. Russia was in favor of a series of sanctions against Iran, but categorically insisting on a political rather than a military solution of the problem.
Its active participation in the negotiations the «5 + 1 - Iran» has contributed to the conclusion of the joint comprehensive action plan dated 07.14.2015, which regulated the nuclear issue, removed sanctions from Iran, and opened new opportunities for Russian-Iranian cooperation.
Afghanistan remained on the periphery of the Russian interests, but Moscow has sought to turn it into a state that does not cause troubles to its neighbor.


 Policy, Economy

LAND MARKET IN CHINA by L.D.Boni, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)
Keywords: China, land market, land capitalization, land for construction purpose, social property system, land requisition, land price, land rent
The study investigates the land capitalization mechanism in China with its specific land social property system and specific land market, analyses the rural land requisition system and the system of land “paid concession” to provide quite enough low cost land for industrial construction as well as financial capital (land rent capital) to invest in industrialization and urbanization of China.


INDIAN STARTUPS - SYMBOL OF CHANGES by E.A.Bragina, Dr.Sc. (Econo- mics), Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations, RAS
Keywords: startups, difficulties of creation, financial obstacles, startup village, nobroker startup, staff problems, state support
Among the new trends in Indian economy author underlines the special role played by startups, as a part of national policy oriented for restoration of national industry. Last years this branch of economy has very low tempo of growth, 1,5-2%, not more.
According to the governmental decision country needs to increase this indicator for modernization of not only industry, but agriculture too. Startups are considered as a possibility to create new types of production and working places. It’s the main points of the startup policy of India.
It’s useful to get to know about startups which were created by young and middle age people for operations in the sphere of real estate. The government under N.Modi announced new parameters for startups, which are necessary for receiving official advantages in the framework of «The Start-up India Action Plan». There are the next main points: entity that is headquartered in India, established less than five years back and has an annual turnover of less than US $3,7 million (Rs 25 crore). According to a survey by Indian Research company more than 4.800 startups were founded in India in 2015.


CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES OF MILITARY POLICY OF ISRAEL ON PALESTINIAN ROUTE by A.A.Ermakov, PhD (History), A.A.Kornilov, Dr.Sc. (History), Professor, I.V.Ryzhov, Dr.Sc. (History), Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod
Keywords: Israel, The Gaza Strip, HAMAS, policy of containment, «intifada Al-Quds»
The authors refer to the policy of containment carried out by Israel against the radicals of the Gaza Strip, controlled by HAMAS. They emphasize the role played by the HAMAS movement in the Palestinian enclave. Attention is also paid to the role of Egypt in the context of the Palestinian-Israeli confrontation.
Regarding Gaza Strip, the authors address the threat which is coming from cross-border tunnels made by the Palestinian radicals. Moreover, a wave of violence in 2015-2016, known as the «intifada Al-Quds» is investigated in this article. In particular, attention is paid to the attacks of lone person-terrorists.


GCC AND SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES DEVELOPMENT by E.S.Biryukov, PhD (Economics), MGIMO University, O.V.Biryu- kova, PhD (Economics), National Research University Higher School of Economics. Part 1
Keywords: Special economic zones, GCC, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
The policy of the GCC states (Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Saudi Arabia) in the sphere of development of special economic zones (SEZ) is analyzed. The article consists of two parts. The first one deals with Free-trade zones (FTZs). The largest FTZs of the region are zones of Dubai, Sharjah, Ras el-Khaima, Kuwait. The role and prospects of FTZs in the economy of the Arabian monarchies are considered. The meaning of re-export in the external trade of UAE and Bahrain is studied.


UGANDA: YOWERI MUSEVENI AND THE PROBLEM OF POLITICAL LON- GEVITY by T.S.Denisova, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Uganda, Yoweri Museveni, political leadership, political longevity, presidential elections, authoritarianism, democratization
In February 2016, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, the permanent leader of Uganda for over 30 years, won the presidential election for the fifth time. The article discusses the positive and negative aspects of political longevity. It claims that this issue is particularly important for Uganda, whose leader causes mixed reactions among the country’s citizens and representatives of the international community ambivalent: on the one hand, he is accused of the usurpation of power, on the other hand, it is widely accepted that it is thanks to his tenacity and political wisdom that Uganda has become one of the most stable and economically developed countries in Africa.
The author focuses on tough domestic policies of the current regime, the main trends in the formation of foreign policy, including relations with donors and investors, the successes and failures of the socio-economic and economic policy, and the conflict between the regime and the opposition.


Keywords: Japanese youth, problems of employment, survey, current issues
Current issues of Japanese youth employment (part-time employment) need to be understood in the context of increased labor market flexibility, problems in the higher education system and changing of vital values of young generation. The contemporary labor market in Japan reflects structural changes in employment, increased demands for labor flexibility and changing of skill requirements.
The process of globalization which influences on rapidly expanding labor market makes it more difficult for young people to secure stable employment trajectories. This paper examines the problems on the way of economic independence to adulthood Japanese young people have already been faced.


IRAQI KURDISTAN: POWER ENGINE- ERING by N.Z.Mosaki, PhD (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS; Federal Tax Service
Keywords: Iraq, Iraqi (South) Kurdistan, electric power, power plants
The political success of the Iraqi (South) Kurdistan is largely dependent on the development of its energy sector, which is characterized in recent years by steady growth. This factor increases the economic and political autonomy local Kurdistan administration from the central government in Baghdad.
Over the past decade, in Iraqi Kurdistan built a new energy economy with almost two dozen power plants and associated infrastructure, invested more than $5 billion, implemented a program for rural electrification, power lines were connected to more than 3 thousand villages. In 2009-2013 the number of objects connected to electricity in the Kurdistan region increased  from 0.7 to 1.1 million.


 Scientific Life

Keywords: Africa, climate changes, threat, environment, safety, desertification
It is a report on the conference of this topic. Every year the problem of global climate change becomes more acute. The most difficult situation is observed in poor and the poorest countries of the world, he majority of them are African. Economically weak, they are not able even if partially to ensure the safety of the population facing the threat of desertification, deforestation, droughts and flooding of large areas of land. In this regard, the urgent task is taking specific measures at the international, regional and national levels.


 Post-Graduate Column

ASIAN MODEL OF EXPORT FINANCING: PRACTICE OF CHINA IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA by F.V.Malakhov, Post-graduate student, Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: state support for exports, export credit agency, the Export-Import Bank of China, China’s foreign trade policy, Sub-Saharan Africa
China is one of the world largest exporter of goods and services. Within last decade and a half China’s share of world exports has increased by 4 times (from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2014). In absolute value the meaning of Chinese exports has grown by almost 10 times (from $0.24 billion to $2.34 trillion).
One of the most successful vectors of China’s foreign economic policy was cooperation with the countries of «the South». It’s based, in fact, upon fundamentally new strategy. This strategy involves the rejection of the nomination of political conditions (except non-recognition of Taiwan’s status), mutually beneficial and pragmatic cooperation, conspicuous deve-lopment of partnerships at the highest level. It also combines the planning and coordination from the «top», as well as flexible policy toward trade balance with the partner country and active application of preferential financing conditions.


INDIAN FOREIGN POLICY UNDER PM NARENDRA MODI: RESULTS FOR TWO YEARS by V.I.Poluektov, Post-graduate student, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University)
Keywords: India, foreign policy, Narendra Modi, multilateral diplomacy
Two years ago Narendra Modi took PM office. He visited 40 countries, launched various programs and foreign policy initiatives to secure India’s national interests on the global scale. The article summarizes geopolitical efforts of his government in the sphere of foreign policy, the use of multilateral diplomacy to promote Indian geostrategic priorities and foreign policy concepts.
The author states that the impressive achievements of Modi-led policy, with some drawbacks, though, contribute to the improvement of bilateral and multilateral relations of India with various countries transforming it into a really “leading power”.


 Culture, Literature, Art

AFRICA AT THE CROSSROADS OF LANGUAGES AND CULTURES by N.S. Naydenova, Dr.Sc. (Philology), Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia
Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, France, African literature, French language
The article deals with the research of narrative spaces in the novels by contemporary African writers, those who are writing in French. The analysis of the novel Le Mйridional by Henri Lopes and Les coqs cubains chantent а minuit by Tierno Monenembo the author reveals linguistic strategies aimed at creating picturesque narrative fabric covering various mentalities, cultures and continents. континентов.
Particular emphasis is made on the mechanisms of subverting the traditional “North – South” binary opposition. Special attention is paid to the language game built on the discrepancies among different variants of the French language. The issue of new identities formed in the current environment of intensive transcultural exchange is also touched upon. The article also describes creative transformation by the writers of African and world literature with the view of creating their own authentic texts.


* Summary