"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075. Published since July 1957.


 "Asia and Africa today" № 3 2018



Aziaafrika 03 2018


 Top Problem

Andrey Yu. URNOV, Dr.Sc. (History), Principal Research Fellow, Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
    In this article the review of the US military activities in Africa is concluded. In brief are depicted the ways the US relations with some African countries were shaped. Special attention was paid to Egypt. As before, the ruling regimes in South Sudan and Democratic Republic of the Congo were «blacklisted».
    The relations with the Republic of South Africa were equable, but rather cool. US supported the UN led political process in Libya. Military assistance was rendered to the Government of National Accord. In Kenya, where the opposition refused to recognize the results of presidential elections, Washington called upon the parties to resolve the problem through dialogue. The legitimacy of President Uhuru reelection was not put in doubt. President Museveni of Uganda statement that Trump’s policy would help African leaders to get rid of dependency syndrome was appreciated in Washington. Close remained the relations with Nigeria. US welcomed the resignation of Zimbabwe President R.Mugabe.
    The concluding part of the article deals with major developments in the US-Africa relations, which took place at the end of 2017 - at the beginning of 2018. In November 2017 the US Secretary of State met in Washington with foreign ministers of 37 African countries.     Washington’s political, economic, military and security priorities in Africa were expounded in “The regional context” section of the new National security strategy of the United States adopted in December 2017. According to the strategy, the two main US enemies in Africa are terrorist and China. D.Trump decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital led to a deterioration of the US relations with African countries.. African states vote on the GA resolution concerning the Crimea had shown a significant positive evolution of their position
on that problem.
Keywords: USA, African policy, economic aid, military activities, terrorism, bilateral and multilateral relations


 Policy, Economy

Evgeniy S. BIRYUKOV, PhD (Economics), Senior Research Fellow, Russian Institute of Strategic Studies, Assistant Professor, Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Trade, MGIMO-University, MFA of Russia ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
Nikita V. KOLPAKOV, Junior Researcher, UNESCO Chair, Russian State Social University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
Alexandra V. KHUDAYKULOVA, PhD (Political Science), Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Analysis of International Problems, MGIMO-University, MFA of Russia; Assistant Professor, Department of Theory and History of International Relations, RUDN University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
    By forming the core of OPEC and being leaders in the international oil market, the Arabic countries are transforming their economic power into the development of alternative institutions of global governance aimed at the Islamic community. These structures include, first of all, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and related institutions, the World Islamic Economic Forum. As the Islamic ummah grows, including in European countries, the influence of alternative institutions of global governance will increase as well.
    The influence of Arab countries in the traditional, Western institutions of global governance remains weak. None of the countries is a permanent member of the UN Security Council and is not a member of the G-7. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the only
Arab member of the G-20. The aggregate quota of Arab countries in the International Monetary Fund is only 5, 93% of the total number of votes.
    At the same time, the dominance of Arab countries, in particular, of Saudi Arabia, in the structures of OIC, is decisive. For the entire history of the OIC, 6 out of 11 Secretaries General of the organization were representatives of Arab countries. 7 out of 13 sessions of the Islamic Summit and 3 out of 5 emergency meetings of the Islamic Summit were also held in the Arab countries. 8 out of 18 affiliated organizations of OIC are headquartered in the Arab countries. In a number of cases, these institutions are used not only to consolidate Islamic unity, but to promote geopolitical projects and foreign policy objectives of Saudi Arabia.
Keywords: Arabic countries, Saudi Arabia, global governance, Organization of Islamic Cooperation, World Islamic Economic Forum, Islamic finance


Vyacheslav Ya. BELOKRENITSKY, Dr.Sc. (History), Professor; Head, Center for the Study of Near and Middle Eastern Countries, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences; member, Editorial Board, “Aziya i Afrika segodnya” journal ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
    The author singles out two phases of urbanization linked to modernization and agglomeration. The first phase covers the transformation of a traditional urban system into a modern one, while the second is characterized primarily by the agglomeration of people in cities and towns. Both factors in an ideal case act simultaneously. In the reality of urbanization in Pakistan the division into two stages is predetermined first of all by the high demographic growth.
    Modernization remains a factor at the phase of agglomerative urbanization but takes the back seat. While characterizing density of population in cities and urban periphery and growing overall overcrowding in Pakistan, the author underlines a complex nature of social, economic and ecological problems faced by the society and the state.
    Among particular problems identified by the author are wide-spread and growing poverty (more than third of urban population), the predominance of informal sector in the structure of employment in manufacturing, construction, trade and services, the criminality, insecurity for urban dwellers and inconveniences for them caused by politically motivated mass gatherings and sit-in strikes. Urban areas, especially megacities like Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad-Rawalpindi, suffer from congestion in central quarters and in periphery, from shortage of public transport, breaks in electricity and water supply, lack of modern sanitation, dirtiness in the streets and heavy smog.
    The author stresses the inadequacy of government efforts to solve various problems stemming from urbanization, touches upon the issue of climate warming and its possible disastrous consequences for some Pakistani cities and towns. In conclusion, he reveals the importance of Pakistan’s experience in relation to agglomerative urbanization for the nations of South Asia as well as other overpopulated regions of Asia and Africa.
Keywords: Pakistan, urbanization, modernization, agglomeration, poverty, unemployment, ecology


Kirill A. ALESHIN, PhD (Economics), Senior Research Fellow, Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
    The article analyses the evolution of relations between the European Union (EU) and Africa at the turn of the 21st century. The EU remains the most powerful integration union and economic center, seeking to strengthen its influence, especially in geographically close regions.     In the 1990s and early 2000s, the EU and Africa formed the framework of the relations, identified the spheres of mutual interest, and gradually advanced their cooperation. At the moment, bilateral relations are experiencing a new stage of development, the priority areas of which are trade, investment and humanitarian cooperation. So far, the African continent remains “dependent” on the EU, strongly contributing to European energy security, serving as a capacious market for European goods and a provider of high revenues on investments.
    At the same time, Africa is the source of humanitarian problems for the EU that require a permanent political dialogue as well as substantial financial injections, and it seems that social issues will continue to dominate the relationship further. As for the trade and investments, in the coming decades the African economy is expected to grow rapidly, and Africa’s “dependence” may be reduced. In addition, the gradual expansion of developing states, in particular China, which are actively conquering the African market, can have a significant impact on the level of economic cooperation between the EU and Africa.
    The unresolved political problems within the EU also impede the implementation of a coordinated and balanced strategy in Africa. The union is likely to remain an influential player on the African continent if it delegates the authority to develop and conduct foreign policy to a supranational level. The EU’s and its members’ experience in Africa can be considered as a reference for the authorities of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and Russia.
Keywords: foreign economic policy, trade, investments, integration, European Union, Africa


Zoya S. PODOBA, PhD (Economics), Associate Professor, Department of World Economy; Senior Research Fellow, Laboratory of Asian Economic Studies, Saint Petersburg State University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
Anna M. TITOVA, student, Saint Petersburg State University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
    The paper provides an analytical overview of the phenomenon concerning the establishment and successful functioning of financial-industrial groups (chaebols) in Republic of Korea and their role in export-oriented industrialization.
    The distinctive features of chaebol have been identified, namely the family principle of ownership, the extensive system of subsidiaries in various sectors of the economy, flexible financial structure, good planning, and export dominance. Comparative characteristics of the Korean chaebol, Japanese zaibatsu, and keiretsu, as well as Western conglomerates are given. Furthermore, the current paper highlights the role of chaebols in the modern economic development of the Republic of Korea.
    The authors conclude, that the significance of family conglomerates in the country’s economy has continued to grow at the beginning of the 21st century. The case of Samsung Group was chosen to demonstrate the chaebol’s ownership structure and family ownership system. Finally, in-depth study examines the main strengths and weaknesses of the chaebols. Korean conglomerates’ positive characteristics include efficiency in decision-making; a high degree of entrepreneurial activity, proved to be effective in a market economy; focus on long-term results in contrast to companies with hired professional managers, who are oriented to immediate achievements. The high concentration of export goods allows chaebols to make big profits and invest in research and development.
    Despite reasonable criticism for corruption; the concentration of power, distorting market competition; persecution of personal interests of the family owners, chaebols in many respects shape the competitiveness of the Korean economy, ensuring the position of one of the leaders of global industrial production.
Keywords: the Republic of Korea, economic miracle, chaebols, export-oriented industrialization


Nikolay V. ANISIMTSEV, PhD (History), Senior Research Fellow Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
    The article presents current problems of modernization of PRC, formation of present legislation which regulates the exclusive rights of intellectual property, including the trade mark laws. There are presented main historical stages of development of trade mark laws, basic actual documents in this field, also is presented the organizational structure of the protection of trademark`s laws by the government and methods of its work.
    Special attention is paid to the description of the process and methods of registration of a trade mark, both through the service of local patent agency in PRC or through international bodies in accordance with The Madrid`s Protocol.
    The article details problems of the protection of intellectual property rights, trade mark laws. The author treats mutual influences of the trademark rights and the state policy of modernization, and finally makes the conclusion that the actual implementation of exclusive rights of trademarks inevitably needs a significant state interference and regulatory role in economic field.
    Some obstacles of intellectual property rights protection are due to the problems within the scope of responsibility of Chinese authorities, i.e. high degree of autonomy of local bodies of power, low professional qualification of Justice personal, dependency of judiciary on administrative branch of power. But some problems are resulting from the natural progress of technologies and market economy. The latter are much more complicated, it would be rather difficult to find solution for them. The leadership of PRC is making significant efforts to settle the above mentioned problems of both kinds.
Keywords: Trademark Laws, Exclusive Right for Trademark, Intellectual Property Rights, modernization of PRC, The State Administration for Industry and Commerce of PRC, The Trademarks Office, Tr ademark Law of PRC, World Intellectual Property Organization


Vasily I. RUSAKOVICH, PhD (Economics), Associate Professor, Department of World Economy, Plekhanov Russian Economic University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ) ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
    The article analyzes the peculiarities of socio-economic development of Oman and the structural transformation of the national economy in 2006-2016. Having significant oil and gas reserves, extracting huge volumes of raw materials and exporting it to the world market, Oman and other Gulf countries (GCC), which traditionally are included into the system of international division of labor mainly as the leading suppliers of hydrocarbons. However, in conditions of instability in the world oil market for the GCC States becoming more and more relevant the need to diversify national economies through capacity the non-oil sectors, industries and activities.
    The author focuses on the sectoral, regional, institutional and infrastructural reforms, while maintaining a leading role in the national economy, exports and government revenues in the hydrocarbons segment. The positive effect of structural change on the overall dynamics and foreign trade (including commodity and geographic diversification of exports). The author identified the main priorities of the structural policy of the Sultanate of Oman up to 2020 and the results of this process.
    In the part of the Russian-Omani trade and economic relations it is noted that they are to present an unbalanced and uneven, remaining, however, in the author’s opinion, is quite promising from the point of view of diversification of the economy of Oman.
Keywords: GCC, Oman, structural transformation, economic diversification, economic structure, oil, processing industry, services, investments


Olga B. GROMOVA, PhD (History), Senior Research Fellow Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
    Sub-Saharan Africa is especially vulnerable to the effects of global climate change. A large share of African population lives in areas susceptible to climate variations and extreme weather conditions and relies on subsistence rain-fed agriculture. Climate change affects African men and women differently because of the specific social and economic roles they play and responsibilities they have at the household and community levels.
     Women in rural areas are disproportionally affected because of their close connection to the environment and predominance in subsistence agriculture. Being poorer and less educated, they are especially vulnerable to climate change since their livelihoods are highly sensitive to climate variability. Women are responsible for over 70% of agricultural activity, and that is in addition to doing household chores such as fetching water and energy resources for cooking and heating. The lack of easy access to water affects mostly rural women and children, deepening their poverty and vulnerability. Due to the rapid depletion of natural resources, the economic role played by women to support their household and societal well-being is in jeopardy.
    Rural women in Sub-Saharan region remain at the foot of the economic ladder, despite making up a significant majority of people working on the land. They face social, economic and political barriers that limit their capacity to cope with these challenges. African rural women do not possess equal access to landownership, financial, technical and other resources. They usually have access to less fertile and smaller land. Women are often excluded from the decision-making process concerned with the use of land and resources.
    The consultation and participation of women in climate change initiatives must be ensured, and the role of women's groups and networks - strengthened. All sustainable and ecologically sound development plans and programmes must take into account gender considerations.
Keywords: global climate change, vulnerability, gender aspect, water stress, access to water, climate change social risks, ecomigration


 Culture, Literature, Art

Nataliya V. KOLESNIKOVA, PhD (Philology), Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
    The paper deals with very important phenomenon in the postcolonial age «Asian Immigrant in the West» based on a short story «One Out Of Many» written by Nobel laureate V.S.Naipaul. He is widely regarded as the greatest living writer in the English language.
    Naipaul was born in 1932 to a Brahmin family that had immigrated to Trinidad from India at the end of the 19th century.     The young man escaped from Trinidad to England, where he attended University College in Oxford. Beginning in the 1950s Naipaul’s home became England where he further explored his literary gifts. Trinidadian by birth, East Indian by descent and British by choice he is known for his penetrating analyses of alienation and exile.
    The writer has been awarded a number of literary prizes, among them the coveted Man Booker Prize for perhaps his finest sustained writing «In A Free State». The book consists of a novel with two framing narratives and two short stories. One of the stories portraits the life of Santosh, a Bombay servant who ventures on a diplomatic expedition with his master to Washington D.C.
    The purpose of the work is an attempt to discover the changes of identity features of the immigrant who emigrated from India to the United States of America. This research reveals the adaptation stages the East Indian immigrant goes through and the acculturation strategies he adopts in a new cultural context. Special attention is devoted to the question of the meaning of freedom for the inhabitant who had developed in the traditional India when he attempts to live in an American society.
Keywords: modern English-language literature, writers of asian-african origin, V.S.Naipaul, postcolonial immigration in the West, categories of migrants, adaptation stages, acculturation strategies


Svetlana V. PROZHOGINA, Dr.Sc. (Philology), Сhief Research Fellow, Department of Comparative Culturology, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

    L’intensite des processus migratoires (seulement en Europe 1 million d’immigres chaque annee), loin de resoudre les differences des societes polyethniques et polyculturelles, mena, au contraire, a la destabilisation des minorites ethniques au cours de la politique d’integration des immigres, et, par suite, a la radicalisation de leur identification nationale dans las societes d’accueil.
    Le processus de la formation des «ghettos ethniques» - surtout ceux des nord-africains - dans les grandes villes des la France obstacule la possibilite d’une leur occidentalisation complete, ou d’une leur assimilation culturelle, ce que complique considerablement la condition sociale et psycologique des immigres. D’un cote c’est l’envie, surtout chez les femmes musulmanes, d’etre «comme toutes les autres», mais de l’autre cote c’est l’envie de conserver les traditions des leurs parents et d’etre, a la fois, soit «l’une», soit «l’autre».
    Il y a aussi, naturellement, le but de s’integrer completement dans la civilisation europeenne (ou etre «completement occidentalisees» comme certaines leurs compatriotes dans leur pays d’origine), qui reflete une tendance entre les femmes mariees a garder la possibilite de l’enseignement et de l’ouverture sociale. Le plus souvent le choix aboutit au compromis d’appartenir a deux cultures - celle orientale et celle occidentale - si les familles n’y
s’opposent pas, des qu’un choix pareil comporte aussi un compromis assez ambigu entre deux confessions.
    Un un clefs propos: Maghreb les temoignages des femmes-ecrivains, les defiis de la moderrnisation, les seductions de la Tradition


 Book Review

Review of the book: Khodynskaya-Golenishcheva M.S. «Aleppo: War and diplomacy. Geopilitics of Syrian crisis in the context of transformation of the system of international
relations». Moscow, 2017. 224 p. (In Russ.)
Nikolay I. PETROV, independent observer ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
Keywords: M.S.Khodynskaya-Golenishcheva, Syria, Aleppo, Syrian crisis, Russian diplomacy


Review of the book: Ikonnikova E.A. and Nikonov A.S. «Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Japanese literature of the XX-XXI centuries» (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Sakhalin
State University, 2016. 124 p.) (In Russ.)
Alexandra O. MANKOVA, PhD (Philology), Literary Editor, Information resource PREGEL.INFO. Russia, Sakhalin Region ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
Keywords: Sakhalin, Kuril Islands, Japanese literature