"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075. Published since July 1957.


 "Asia and Africa today" № 5 2014


Azia&Afrika 05-2014


 Top Problem

RUSSIAN-EGYPTIAN RELATIONS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURIES by M.L.Bogdanov, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (Part 2)
Keywords: Russia, Egypt, Soviet/Russian - Egyptian relations
In August of this year the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Moscow and Cairo has been celebrated. In connection with this event the nature of relations between the two countries over the years is analyzed. Over the last four decades the Russian - Egyptian relations have gone through three stages in its development: the crisis period (first half of the 1970s - mid-1990s); finding ways to recover and to look for new forms of interaction (the mid-1990s - beginning of 2000s); and stage of modernization and the rise (the first decade of the XXI century). The main attention is paid to the relationship in the post-Soviet period.

Keywords: revision of Japan’s Constitution of 1947
The problem of revision of Japan’s Constitution of 1947, which operates without a single amendment to present time, has always existed in society. However, since early 2000s, debates about the nature of revision of the Basic Law are becoming increasingly strained and accompanied by concrete actions that contribute to its transferring to the practical level.
There is a need to add to this document the new provisions, such as the so-called new human rights: «right to a favorable ecological environment», «right to information» and «right to privacy».


 Policy, Economy


CHINA’S «NUCLEAR GREAT LEAP FORWARD», People’s Republic of China is going to lead the world in the sphere of civil nuclear energy by A.A.Bronnikov, Post-graduate student, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: People’s Republic of China, atomic energy, world uranium market, nuclear power technologies
The article contains a brief overview on problems and prospects of development of nuclear power in China. The progress achieved by the country over last 2 years after claiming the aim of «nuclear great leap forward» is described. Problem of shortage of nuclear fuel as the main issue, that can impede the implementation of country’s ambitious plans is analyzed. Steps, taken by China to address that problem are described. International aspect of development of the atomic energy in China is studied.

MONGOLIA: MODERN MECHANISMS OF NATIONAL CONSOLIDATION by V.I.Terentyev, Post- graduate student, Gorno-Altaisky State University
Keywords: Mongolia, postsocialism, ritualization of the past, Chinggis Khan, nationalism
In this article the main themes are: the modern mechanisms of forming general civil and Mongolian identity and Mongolian national consolidation. The main component of these processes is unlimited introduction of the image of Chinggis Khan in all social spheres of life.
The area of civil and ethnic nationalism is also analyzed. The place and the role of Khan are shown in perception of ordinary citizens. Particular perception by Mongols and new ritual practice are connected with dissemination of Chinggis Khan’s cult in the country.

Keywords: Myanmar, ASEAN, movement “969”, Buddhists, Burmese Muslims, Rohingya Muslims, radical monks, Ashin Wirathu, Aung San Suu Kyi.
One of destabilizing factors in the process of democratization in Myanmar is religious strife. Since the outbreak of violence in Arakan State in 2012 more clashes between Buddhists and Burmese Muslims have broken out around the country, from Meikthila in central Myanmar to Lashio in the Shan State. Whereas during the period of the military junta ethnic tensions were supressed by strict military rule, new found freedom of speech permits Buddhist monks, such as Ashin Wirathu, to spread ideas of religious intolerance and fan the flames of Islamofobia.

THE SKY OVER AFRICA: WHO AND HOW ENSURES ITS SAFETY by E.O.Ganenkov, Post-graduate student, and A.I.Travnikov, PhD (Legal Sciences), Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia
Keywords: ASCAIN, air navigation services, aviation safety
In 2013 the share of African airlines accounted for 20% of air crashes with fatal outcome, although on this continent only about 3% of world output of passenger traffic is performed. The main causes of disasters in the region are the use of airlines old, worn out aircraft and the low quality of pilot training staff.

Keywords: liberalization of services trade, ASEAN Economic Community, common services market, services export
The article considers services trade liberalization carried out by the Association’s members by means of parallel fulfillment of commitments under the internal Framework Agreement on Services and mutual recognition arrangements, obligations under the WTO and regional trade agreements of the member states. Further development of this liberalization requires a removal of barriers in banking and medical services along with a growth of infrastructure projects.


 Foreign Expert Opinion

SWAPO IN ARMED STRUGGLE FOR LIBERATION by Ndali-Che Kamati, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Republic of Namibia in the Russian Federation
Keywords: Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa, SWAPO, armed liberation struggle
The article is one of the research works on political processes and developments in Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa after the end of colonialism and apartheid.
The author presents a brief summary of how SWAPO and the people of Namibia achieved independence after many years of protracted armed liberation struggle.

CHINA AND RUSSIA: PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF ENERGY COOPERATION by Chu Ling (China), Post- graduate student, St.-Petersburg State University
Keywords: energy cooperation, energy security, strategic partnerships, the problem of cooperation, prospects for future cooperation
This article describes the prospects and problems of сcooperation between China and Russia in the energy sector. The author analyzes the specific difficulties of China-Russia cooperation in the energy sphere. In such a context, the author focuses on the prospects of cooperation between China and Russia in the energy field, taking into account the importance of China and Russia as a strategic partnership, the political and economic aspects of which depend on the energy policies of the two parties.


 Scientific Life

Keywords: Rwandan genocide, meeting to the memory, Institute for African Studies of Russian Academy of Sciences
The general meeting of the Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Science was held in March dedicated to those 20 years which separate us from the Rwandan genocide, mass slaughter of Tutsi and moderate Hutu in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority.
The Director of the Institute, academician A.M.Vasiliev underlined that after the horrors of the Second World War, when the genocide had been subjected to whole nations, people believed that nothing of the kind will ever take place. However, in our days the genocide was applied in Cambodia, several African countries and in the most brutal forms in Rwanda.
A large public lecture was delivered by the Ambassador of the Republic of Rwanda in Russia Dr. Jane d’Arc Mujawamaria. The report «Rwanda: 20 years after the genocide» was presented by a senior research fellow of the Institute S.M.Shlenskaya. The meeting was also addressed by the Ambassador of Kenya in Russia Paul K.Kurgat, the Ambassador of Sudan Omer Mohamed, the First Deputy Editor-in-Chief of “Asia and Africa today” journal O.I. Teterin and some others.

RWANDA: 20 YEARS AFTER GENOCIDE by S.M.Shlenskaya, Senior Research Fellow, Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: Rwanda, genocide, events of 1994, restoration
The analysis of the genocide’s reasons or chronology of the events of 1994 is not the aim of the author in this article. It contains a brief review of Rwanda’s losses in different spheres of the economy and culture in the period of genocide and civic war. The author deals with the measures elaborated jointly by the government and international institutions in order to restore peace and law, economy, constitutional development and culture. The process of the realization of these measures is observed and the results of 20 years development are analyzed. The article contains the estimation of the possibilities of the future economic development of Rwanda. Special consideration is given for the measures of the government to immortalize the memory of the victims of the genocide of 1994 and to prevent the events like these in future.


 Post-Graduate Column

PROSPECTS FOR REPUBLIC OF KOREA TO BECOME A NUCLEAR STATE by V.M.Vishnyov, Post-graduate student, Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University
Keywords: «nuclear domino», guarantees of extended deterrence, nuclear sovereignty.
The article contains analysis of possible transformations of South Korean-US alliance in the context of the growing nuclear threat from North Korea. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of developing its own nuclear weapons by the Republic of Korea. Diverse points of view of Western experts on the «nuclear future» of Seoul are given. Historical aspects of cooperation between the U.S. and South Korea in missile and nuclear spheres, as well as «nuclear dossier» of Seoul are reviewed. The main theses of the Republic of Korea nuclear status acquisition supporters and possible negative effects of launching a nuclear weapons program are analyzed.

CHILDREN OF NIGERIA IN RUSSIA by A.M.Adediran, Post-graduate student, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia
Keywords: Nigerian students in Russia, adaptation, reverse culture shock, cross-cultural integration
This article examines the adaptation process of the Nigerian students who choose to migrate to Russia, for the purpose of receiving a better higher education. The effect of cross-cultural shock the students experience is analysed and broken down into five phases, which describe how Nigerian students learn to adapt to their new cultural environment. The article also analyses reverse culture shock, which the Nigerian students experience after they graduate and travel back to Nigeria.


 History Pages

AFGHANISTAN: UNHEALED WOUNDS OF RUSSIA by A.M.Vasiliev, Academician, Russian Academy of Sciences (Part 1)
Keywords: Afghanistan, “April revolution”, the Soviet invasion, Nur Muhammad Taraki, Hafizullah Amin, Babrak Karmal
Until today the war in Afghanistan inflicts pain to the historical memory of the Russian people. The author approached this subject in one of the chapters of his book «Russia in the middle East. From Messiahship to pragmatism», published as early as in 1993.
Over the past two decades a vast literature on Afghanistan - documents, memoirs, studies - have come into being. This helped to clarify many of the facts and a number of estimates related to those events. The author’s interpretation of the Afghan tragedy and the role of USSR/Russia basically remains the same, but new materials help to give a more balanced and comprehensive picture.


 Our Interview

The topic of this interview is about the “Russian-Malay, Malay-Russian Dictionary” containing 50 000 words, that has been published in Malaysia for the first time. The dictionary was compiled by the ardent contributer to the journal, Russian scholar of Oriental studies Victor Pogadaev, who currently works at the University of Malaya (Kuala Lumpur) as a teacher of Russian language.


 Culture, Literature, Art

A NEW GENERATION of WRITERS in AFGHANISTAN by A.S.Gerasimova, PhD (Philology)
Keywords: literature of Afghanistan, Afghan women-writers
For the time being, there are almost no women prose writers in the Afghan literature. The readers are offered a story “On the side of the road” written by Rana And, a young woman Afghan writer.


 Book Review

SOVIET INTELLIGENCE IN THE EAST by K.A.Kokarev, independent researcher

A new book of Pavel V.Gusterin “Soviet intelligence in the Middle East in 1920-30s” was issued by the Publishing House “LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing” (Saarbrьcken, Germany) in January, 2014. The monograph tells readers about structure and special operations of Soviet intelligence services in the region to spread the influence of the first socialist state in the countries that depended of Great Britain, to counteract Nazi intelligence agencies, as well as to promote communist ideology. The author is the first one in the scientific literature who examines in details the activities of the Oriental / Special Faculty of the Frunze Military Academy of the Red Army.


* Summary