"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075. Published since July 1957.


 "Asia and Africa today" № 5 2015



Azia&Afrika 05-2015


 Top Problem


IS RUSSIA COMING BACK TO AFRICA? by Ye.N.Korendyasov, PhD (Economics), Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow
Keywords: Russia, Africa, foreign policy, Russian- African partnership
It is known that the collapse of the Soviet Union caused considerable damage to the positions and prestige of Russia in Africa. 9 embassies, 4 consulates, most of the cultural centers, sales offices were closed. African aviation lines were abolished. Time puts everything in its place. African vector is becoming a more important place in Russia’s foreign policy strategy. Russian politicians are aware of the growing role of Africa in world politics and the need to increase the capacity of Russian-African relations.
The Russian Foreign Ministry Survey of the Russian foreign policy stated: “It’s impossible to establish fruitful cooperation, to create a complete and stable system of global security based on the primacy of the generally accepted legal norms without active participation of African countries in world affairs and international economic life”.
The future of Russian-African partnership in world politics and economy depends primarily on the rate of formation of the modern Russian national economy and on building carefully balanced hierarchy of geo-economic and geopolitical priorities of the Russian state. But it is also important to eliminate underestimation by Russian politicians and businessmen of the African factor and the level of non-compliance of the partnership achieved with the objective needs and the real possibility of accelerating the return of Russia to the continent.


 Policy, Economy

INDIAN-RUSSIAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION by N.V.Galishcheva, Dr.Sc. (Economics). Part 2. Institute of International Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Russia
Keywords: Indian economy, Indian external economic policy, Indian-Russian cooperation
The article highlights the Indian-ussian economic cooperation, its main problems and perspectives in the
1990-2000s, during the period of liberal economic reforms in both countries. The author draws attention to changes of scales of the economic cooperation between the two countries and to weakening of the Russian vector in the system of priorities of the Indian external economic policy. Although both countries managed to increase the volume of bilateral trade to $7 bln in 2001-2014, the share of Russia in the Indian external trade in this period according to the Indian customs statistics decreased from 1,45% to 0,9%. The statistical analysis shows that the share of hi-tech production in the bilateral trade is small, the turnover consists mainly of raw materials and of the narrow nomenclature of goods which are rather sensitive to the market condition.
The author emphasizes that reducing the Indian- Russian ties started in the early 1990s, when the political and economic establishment of India began to realize that during the economic crisis, destruction of the economic ties between Russia and the new states, which had been previously the members of the USSR, orientation of Russia in the economic relations increasingly on the European states and the USA it would be difficult to maintain the former level of interaction between India and Russia. The financial and economic crisis in India in
1991/92 fiscal year and the start of liberal economic reforms pushed the Indian Government to find the alternative ways of cooperation and to turn towards the EU, Japan, the ASEAN-countries and later towards the USA, and China.

RUSSIA-NORTH KOREA’S ECONOMIC RELATIONS IN THE XXIth CENTURY by L.V.Zakharova, PhD (Economics), Institute for Far Eastern Studies, RAS, Moscow
Keywords: Russia, the Korean Democratic People’s Republic, the Republic of Korea, economic relations
During the cold war years the USSR was the key economic partner of the Korean Democratic People’s Republic (KDPR). 70 important industrial enterprises have been built with the Soviet assistance. In the 90-th Russia has made a stake on cooperation with the Republic of Korea. Than new orientation resulted in practically complete freeze of relations with the Northern Korea, economic relations included.
At the turn of the XX-XXI centuries restoration of those relations has begun. The Russian leadership is pining particularly hopes on realization of large scale projects which are supposed to be carried out with participation of both Korean states, such as laying of a gas pipeline from Russia to RK thru the territory of the Northern Korea, connection of Trans-Siberian Trans-Siberian railway and the Trans-Korean railway and electricity exports from Russia to the Korean peninsula.

MILITARY ASPECT OF JAPAN’S SPACE PROGRAM by E.V.Ukhanova, Saint-Petersburg State University
Keywords: militarization of space, military satellite, space military force, Japan’s Self-Defense Forces, BMD
The article gives a review of Japan’s space military program since its initiation in 1998. It did not take long for Tokyo to create a legal base and industrial resources for launching its own network of military satellites providing.
Development and modernization of military forces realized by China and North Korea compelled Japan to go on with creating of special military space forces by 2019. The remaining self-restricting antimilitarist norms constrain the space budget and thereby prevent active space research and development. These problems are partly solved by dual-use technologies and by interaction with anti-missile defense programs.



THE PROTEST FORMS OF POLITICAL ACTIONS IN THE ARABIC COUNTRIES: FITNAH by Ye.I.Zelenev, Dr.Sc. (History), High School of Economics, Saint-Petersburg’ Branch
Keywords: fitnah, Arab spring, jihad, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Arabic political culture
Most of the Muslim scholars considered the uprisings of 2011-2012 to be fitnah. One can find fitnah as a typical form of public protest in the history of Arabs. Now fitnah is a concept that plays a significant role in the Suni - Shi’a controversy. In the political sphere the protest movements in the form of fitnah can be found in many Arabic countries as well as in Muslim countries in general.
In 2014, January some of the Arab journalists announced the Syrian conflict between the regime and opposition as a form of fitnah. Due to the opinion of some prominent imams Syria was called “The territory of fitnah”. This announcement pushed some Arab rebellions to come out of the fighting.

INNOVATION SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA AS A FACTOR OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC SECURITY by N.P.Gusakov, Dr.Sc. (Economics), E.A.Kolotyrina, Peoples’ Friendship University, Moscow
Keywords: economic security, economic interdependence, innovative policy, innovative system, innovative cluster
The goal of the article is to identify modern features of economic security policy. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of innovation factor in ensuring economic security of the Republic of Korea (RK). In this regard, modern innovative policy of the RK is analyzed. The conclusion is made that the implementation of this policy resulted in formation of effective innovative system. The article describes the development of the national innovation system of the RK.
Achievements of the Korean economy are the result of performance of the Korean innovation system. It is noted that the experience of the RK shows how close cooperation between government, business and scientific community should be in the process of formation o the national innovation capacity. The key elements of the innovative policy of the RK are analyzed as the instruments of the economic security enhancement.


 From Our Staff Correspondent

EBOLA RETREATS, BUT… by V.A.Melnikov, our Staff correspondent in Ghana
Keywords: Ebola, World Health Organization, Ghana, Pasteur Institute
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) deadly disease outbreaks reappeared in three African countries affected by Ebola virus for the last week of January of this year. However, the territory of Ghana remains free from epidemic thanks to special control surveillance system which prevents the penetration of dangerous virus.
The first large-scale tests of two experimental vaccines against Ebola began in Liberia. Potential means to prevent the disease were taken under heavy guard at a secret location in the territory of the republic.
Scientists from the French private nonprofit Pasteur Institute, watching the spread of the virus in Guinea, explore the probability whether a fatal disease could become more contagious.


 Political Portrait

MALAYSIA: ANWAR IBRAHIM - PHOENIX RISING FROM ASHES by V.A.Pogadaev, PhD (History), University of Malaya (Kuala Lumpur)
Keywords: Anwar Ibrahim, Mahathir Mohamad, Malaysia’s political situation, political struggle, Malaysian opposition, People’s Justice Party
Article deals with the political activity of Anwar Ibrahim, one of the most prominent opposition leaders of Malaysia. In the early 1980s thanks to the Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad he has made a fantastic career. Later he was overthrown by the same Mahathir into the abyss of suffering and humiliation. More than five years he has spent behind bars.
Many political observers decided he was thrown out from politics forever. He nevertheless rose like a phoenix from ashes, managed to unite the opposition and brought it close to victory hitting a devastating blow to the ruling bloc.In the 1990s the second wave of regional integration in Africa has began. It’s main purpose is the overcoming the economic marginalization of the continent.


 Russia and The East

THE DAY OF RUSSIAN CULTURE IN SAUDI ARABIA by M.Nasr el-Gebaly, PhD (Philology), Egypt
Keywords: Russian-Saudi relations, the King Saud University, The Day of Russian culture, the Russian language and culture
In March 2015 at the section of The Russian Language of the chair of The Modern Languages at the Department of Translation at the King Saud University the Day of Russian Culture was held.
The program of the Day included the photo exhibition on such topics as “The Cities of Russia”, “Astronautics”, “Sport”, “Russian Cuisine” etc. and also the exhibition of the souvenirs made in Russian folk style. In the course of this event the popular-science movie in the Arabic language about the cities of Russia was shown, and the quizzing game called “We Know and Love Russia” was organised especially for the students.
At the final part of the program named “The Shrovetide Feast” the participants were offered several dishes of the Russian cuisine such as pancakes, patties and thick pancakes with different stuffing.


 Scientific Life

TRADE UNIONS IN AFRICA by V.I.Gussarov, Dr.Sc. (Geography), N.V.Grishina, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies
Keywords: African trade unions, the «Arab Spring», protest movements
The «Arab Spring» that began in December 2010 in Tunisia and later in other African countries marked the dawn of a new era of the trade union movement in Africa. The «round table» on «The Role of Trade Unions in the modern social and political life of the countries of Africa» held at the Institute of African Studies in November 2014 was devoted to analysis of the driving forces behind the new protest movements and the role of trade unions in general.


 History Pages

THE INDIAN PRINCESS AS A HEROINE OF THE FRENCH RESISTANCE by A.A.Suvorova, Dr.Sc. (Philology), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS, Moscow
Keywords: Second World War, struggle against fascism, British secret service, French Resistance, Indian Sufism
Noor-un-Nisa Inayat Khan (1914-1944) was an Allied SOE agent during the Second World War who was posthumously awarded the George Cross, the highest civilian decoration in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth nations, and the French Croix de Guerre. Also known as «Nora Baker» in England and «Madeleine» in France, she was of Indian and American origin. As an SOE agent, she became the first female radio operator to be sent from Britain into occupied France to aid the French Resistance. Having been arrested, she was classified as «highly dangerous» and shackled in chains most of the time. Nevertheless, she remained uncooperative and continued to refuse to give any information on her work or her fellows. In 1944, she was moved to the Dachau Concentration camp and executed there. In 2012, Princess Anne unveiled the bronze bust commemorating her in the centre of London.

Keywords: Ghana, Provisional National Defence Council, Jerry John Rawlings, chiefs of the local tribes, Asantehene, «linguists»
The Russian diplomat, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the USSR to the Republic of Ghana in 1989-1991, shares his recollections about this African country and her leader of that time: Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings, the Head of State and the Chairman of the Provisional National Defense Council. The author dwells on the state of bilateral relations and cooperation between the USSR and Ghana and pays much attention to the history of Ghana, her population, languages and other characteristic features. The reader will learn about the chiefs of the local tribes, the Asantehene of the Ashanti people in particular, and their spokesmen - so called «linguists» as well as about official ceremonies and popular festivals held in the country.

URAL COSSACKS IN AUSTRALIA by L.B.Aristova, PhD (Economics), Institute of Oriental Studies
Keywords: Russia, Cossacks, the Ural River, Australia
In the 1920s, after the Civil War a significant part of Cossacks who lived in the area of the Ural River, emigrated first to China and then to Australia. In a strange land Cossacks managed to preserve ancient traditions and pass them to the younger generation. Many emigrants succeeded in various fields. Some of them participated in the World War II fighting against fascism. Descendants of the Ural Cossacks are still keenly interested in developments in Russia and maintain contact with modern Ural Cossacks, the descendants of those who stayed at home.


 Culture, Literature, Art

JAPANESE GANGSTER MOVIES: THEIR CHARACTERS AND CREATORS by E.L.Kata- sonova, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Oriental Studies
Keywords: Japanese cinema, samurai movies, gangster movies
This article deals with one of the most prominent genre in Japanese cinema - Yakuza eiga, which focuses on the problems of the Japanese organized crime syndicate (yakuza).
This genre emerged in the postwar years and still extremely popular. This genre helped to establish a number of internationally recognized film-makers (Kinji Fukusaku, Takeshi Kitano, Suzuki Seijun) and actors (Ken Takakura, Bunta Sugawara, Jjunko Fuji) while several studios («Toei», «Nikkatsu») have been established because of it success.


 Book Review

JOURNEY TO THE COUNTRY CALLED HISTORY by G.M.Sidorova, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies
History and historians - that’s the main plot of the book by Africanist and orientalist, Professor, Doctor of Historical Sciences A.M.Khazanov “They taught me the craft of historian” (M., 2014, 132 p.). A fascinating story, from which it is difficult to break away, plunges you into the atmosphere of the 1950s, reminds us of the difficult years of perestroika, introduces us to luminaries of science as A.A.Guber (1902-1971), B.F.Porshnev (1905-1971), I.S.Galkin (1898-1990) and many other scientists and historians.


* Summary