"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075. Published since July 1957.


 "Asia and Africa today" № 6 2018



Aziaafrika 06 2018



DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060016

THE PRC’S MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX (MIC) IN ECONOMIC CONSTRUCTION by Pavel B. KAMENNOV, PhD (Political Science), Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

The transfer of the Chinese military-industrial complex to the corporate structure at the end of the 20th century, combined with measures to develop modern information technologies and train a new generation of scientists and specialists, aimed at creating in China a powerful research and production capacity that allows improving the quality parameters of national defense and at the same time - the production of high-tech products for the civil sector.

The basis of the Chinese military-industrial complex now make up 10 of the state military-industrial corporations, open to Chinese and foreign capital, while maintaining a controlling stake in state hands. This structure is a reflection of the current Chinese economy’s tendency to create large modern corporate-type enterprises. Military-industrial corporations have a structure that allows to implement the full range of scientific research, development, production and sales of both military and civilian, including high-tech products. The current stage in the military industrial complex activity is characterized by active mastering of the newest methods of design and development of military and civil engineering with the use of electronic systems, modular principle, standardization.

Presently up to MIC’s 70% of scientific and production potential are involved into producing civil goods, including high technology products, both for domestic consumption and for export. At the same time due to existing free information exchange between military and civilian sectors MIC’s potential is widely used for modernization of traditional branches of the PRC’s industry and also for participation in commercial activities.

Keywords: эmilitary-industrial corporations, military-civil integration, attraction of private and foreign capital



 DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060028

IRAN ON THE EVE OF THE 40TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE ISLAMIC REVOLUTION What do the recent protests hide? by Elena V. DUNAEVA, PhD (History), Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

The article is devoted to the protests that swept Iran at the beginning of January 2018. The unrest on the periphery of the country was especially active. The expectation of some circles in the West that the protests would escalate into a popular uprising were not realized. The middle class did not support these unrests. In early days of the events Iranian officials linked these actions with foreign powers but there is little evidence that the protests were being driven from outside. Despite the fact that multiple spontaneous demonstrations did not grow out into a unified mass movement, the scope of events was unprecedented.

The recent protests became the biggest challenge to the regime since 2009. They are the result of unfavorable economic policy of the administration of H.Rouhani. But the dissatisfaction with the deepening of the social divide and the lack of civil liberties are the real cause of the recent unrests. Protesters openly expressed their distrust of the authorities and especially of the clerics. The events showed that the regime is losing its appeal and serious changes in the socio-political sphere are required to preserve it. Nevertheless ,the main political forces try to use the situation for their own purposes and offer various ways of improving the situation. Rouhani and his supporters see the opportunity to strengthen liberalization in the economic and political spheres. The hardliners are doing their best to consolidate their power. They have not abandoned the use of growing popular dissent to undermine the Government and Rouhani.

Keywords: Islamic Republic of Iran, protests, H.Rouhani, hardliners, challenge to the regime, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corp



DOI: 10.7868/S032150751806003X

INDIA - PAKISTAN: THE EIGHTH DECADE OF MILITARY OPPOSITION by Valeriy P. KASHIN, PhD (History), Leading Research Fellow, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

The main events, character and peculiarities of India-Pakistan opposition since October, 1947 till the present time are at the center of the author’s attention. The writer is analyzing the problem of the former state of Kashmir that caused several Indo-Pakistan wars in 1947-1948, 1965 and 1971, highly explosive conflicts in 1987-1988, 1999 and 2016, as well as cross-border terrorism that turned the region into one of the hot spots of the modern world.

The so-called ‘Chinese factor’ plays an important part in the opposition. China is the main ally and a strategic partner of Pakistan that has some territorial pretenses to India. India  denounces  the  interference  of  Pakistan  into  India’s  internal  affairs  and  blames  Pakistan’s administration in the provocation of jihad in Kashmir, the support of the terrorists, and supplying them with weapons. Pakistan denies all the accusations and demands India to stop repressive actions in the Kashmir valley and maintain the human rights in the region.

Many analysts find the state of the Indo-Pakistan relations critical and offer to consider the control line in Kashmir as the international border. The author of the following article skeptically thinks of the idea and feels the solution is in the sensible compromise with the participation of all the interested parties. The first step on the way should become the restraint of cross border terrorism.

Keywords: India, Pakistan, Kashmir, Kargil, line of control, cross-border terrorism


DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060041

RUSSIA-SOUTH KOREA ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND PRESIDENT MOON JAE-IN’S «NEW NORTHERN POLICY» by Svetlana S. SUSLINA, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Chief Research Fellow, Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ), and Liudmila V. ZAKHAROVA, PhD (Economics), Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

After Moon Jae In was elected president of the Republic of Korea in May 2017 relations between Russia and South Korea began to gain momentum. Both sides have special hopes to develop cooperation in the economic sphere and uncap the existing underutilized potential of the joint development of the Russian Far East.

The paper analyses reasons of sluggish economic performance in bilateral relations in the recent years and emphasizes opportunities for the future revival of trade and investment cooperation between Russia and the Republic of Korea. Prospects of the conclusion of free trade agreement (FTA) between the Eurasian Economic Union and the ROK are considered from both sides’ perspectives. The article examines the main directions of the «new northern policy» and “nine bridges” initiative announced by the South Korean leader and compares them with Moscow’s interests and opportunities to expand economic cooperation.

The study is based on an analysis of official documents of the Republic of Korea, as well as the authors’ interviews with South Korean scholars and official representatives in 2017 and early 2018. The article reveals potential obstacles to the achievement of the declared goals and suggests options for their elimination.

Keywords: Russia, Republic of Korea, economic cooperation, new northern policy, Moon Jae In, development of the Far East


DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060053

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS TRENDS IN BRICS COUNTRIES by  Lada  V. PROGUNOVA,  PhD  (Economics),  Associate  Professor,  Plekhanov  Russian  University  of  Economics ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Based on the analysis of the BRICS central banks statistical data, the UNCTAD’s world investment reports, and estimations of several analytical agencies, the article draws the conclusions about the trends in the development of foreign direct investment of the BRICS countries.

The upward trend in incoming and outgoing FDI of BRICS is due to the liberalization of FDI regimes, management reforms, anti-corruption campaign, amnesty of capital and the adoption of more market laws in BRICS countries. Higher growth rate of outflow investments from the BRICS countries in comparison with the inflow indicates the beginning of the trend turn of the BRICS countries from the primary recipients of investments to active world investors.

China plays a leading role in investing in all countries of the group and accounts for about half of all the accumulated inward and outward direct investments of the BRICS countries. The emerging reorientation of the BRICS FDI flows from classical offshore jurisdictions to the European ones with a favorable tax climate is the first sign of deoffshorization of the BRICS economies, as well as a sign of the beginning of the process of «maturation» investments from the group. MNCs from BRICS are increasing their positions in the global corporate ratings and becoming emerging players in the global M&A landscape. A lion’s share of M&A purchases by companies from BRICS were in developed countries that meets their needs to acquire knowledge-intensive assets, mainly concentrated in developed countries. MNCs from BRICS have been showing greater interest in investment within the group in recent years, that has emerging a trend towards an increase in intra-group flows of FDI.

Keywords: BRICS, intra-group FDI, M&A, MNCs, investment cooperation


DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060065

APEC AND PROSPECTS FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION by Alexander N. FEDOROVSKY, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Head, Section for Pacific Studies, IMEMO, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Main results of 25 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit in Da Nang (Vietnam, 2017) in the context of the role of this organization in regional integration in Asia-Pacific region. Comprehensive review of agenda and finale results of Summits in Da Nang and Lima (Peru, 2016): key decisions and challenges. Characteristics of the regional economic priorities of regional powers mainly China, the United States and Russia. Main aspects of USA transition policy towards regional integration. Analysis of the basic features of the Trump’s administration policy towards ‘Indo-Pacific region’: political factors and economic obstacles. Comparative study of bilateral Free-Trade Agreements and mega-regional projects in Asia-Pacific region, including Transpacific partnership and Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership: consequences, challenges and opportunities for Asia Pacific Free Trade Agreements. New negotiations between USA and the Republic of Korea on Free Trade Agreement. China and USA competition for regional leadership. American and Chinese influence on prospects for integration trends and Pacific institutions. Prospects for Asia-Pacific Free Trade Agreements.

Keywords: APEC, Indo-Pacific region, regional integration, mega-projects, free-trade agreements, USA, China, Russia


DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060077

NEW TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL SECTOR IN CHINA by Maria A. GULEVA, PhD (Economics), professor of Chinese language, MGIMO-University of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Since the beginning of the 2000s, China has made significant progress in the development of the educational sector. Coverage of a compulsory nine-year education is close to 100%, and the quality of the education is rapidly growing. In 2016, public expenditures on education increased to $586 billion. Expenditures on primary and secondary school reach 70% of this amount. For higher education in China students still have to pay on their own, that is why the authorities focus mostly to the development of primary and secondary schools.

Being oriented to the West and making attempts to gain the experience of other countries in the educational sector, China nowadays is having new trends of the development of information technologies in the educational process. The market of early childhood education is growing at a fast pace. Various online courses, video lessons, classes organized according to the method «Two teachers - one system» are being actively implemented. This sector will be increasingly attractive both for various educational institutions that organize after-classes online lessons, as well as for educational companies and start-ups aimed at promoting their teaching products.

The prospects of new trends in China are quite optimistic, as the emergence of new tools and mechanisms for training should bring significant results in the education of such a number of people. China is at a new stage in the development of the educational system, and it is obvious that this development will be inseparable from the use of modern technologies in the educational process.

Keywords: China, education, information technology, on-line education, STEAM-education, early childhood education



DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060089

EFFECTIVE MICROCREDIT BANKING TO ALLEVIATE THE POVERTY IN BANGLADESH by HOSSAIN MD. NAZMUL (Bangladesh) ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ) and RAJU MOHAMMAD KAMRUL ALAM ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

The research focuses on the assessment of the MFIs (Micro Financial Institutes) & Small Business in Bangladesh; it focuses on the impacts of microcredit for growth & development of small businesses and improves the poverty condition. Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world with low GDP/capita and minimum purchasing power. Almost a third of the total population (165 million) of the country lives below the national poverty line ($2/day).

Lifting the vast population out of the poverty conditions and ensuring sustainable economic growth are the most remarkable national objectives in Bangladesh. The development of successful and sustainable small business, which creates employment for low- and semi-skilled workers, mainly self-employed, is considered one of the most effective ways to lift a nation out of the vicious cycle of poverty, and thus is a key policy goal for Bangladesh. Paving the way for MFIs since 1970s, especially during the new wave of microcredit in the 1990s, has come to be seen as an important development policy and a poverty alleviation tool in the country.

The aim of the paper is to analyze existing MFIs and their microcredit policies and propose effective microcredit policies for growth and development of small businesses, as well as socioeconomic  development. The researcher undergoes a field survey using semi-structured questionnaires and scheduled face-to-face interviews in Bangladesh. These analyses and the concept of the method of assessment of the impacts of microcredit determine the research methodology, research questions and the hypotheses which form the ideological basis of the research dissertation as well as its scientific contribution.

Keywords: Microcredit, Micro Financial Institute, Economic Growth, Poverty Alleviation



DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060090

COMPETITIVENESS OF THE ANGOLAN ECONOMY: PLOBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS by Belchior J. SEBASTIAO (Angola),  Post-graduate  student,  State  University  of  Management  ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

The article deals with the problem of competitiveness of the Angolan economy in the context of OPEC. The relevance of studying this problem is due to high dependence of national revenues in Angola from the oil sector, and consequently the need to develop branches of industries in the country, which can compete with foreign manufacturers.

The object matter of the research is competitiveness of the Angolan economy. The subject matter of the research is the measures for ensuring the Angolan economy’s competitiveness.  The  purpose  of  the  research  is  to  review  some  theoretical  aspects  of  the  concept  “national  economy’s competitiveness” and elaborate measures that ensure the competitiveness of the Angolan economy. Taking into consideration the fact that the national economy’s competitiveness is a field of economic theory, which analyses the facts and policies that shape the ability of a nation to create and maintain an environment that sustains more value creation for its enterprises and more prosperity for its people, the article examines the indicators of the Angolan economy’s competitiveness in the context of OPEC, studies the position of Angola in world indexes of national economies’ competitiveness comparing to other OPEC’s member  countries  and  identifies  the  difficulties  and  challenges  that  create  obstacles  to  ensure  the  Angolan  economy’s competitiveness.

The strategic measures to solve the problems of the competitiveness of the Angolan economy are also suggested in the article. Finally, the author concludes that the suggested measures to solve the problems of the Angolan economy’s competitiveness can be an important way for ensuring the Angolan economy’s competitiveness.

Keywords: competitiveness, national economy competitiveness, Angola, OPEC



DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060107

 «CONSCIENCE OF PAKISTAN» by Anna A. SUVOROVA, Dr.Sc. (Philology), Head of Department at Institute of Oriental Studies RAS (Moscow) ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

The article is dedicated to the memory of Asma Jilani Jahangir (1952-2018), a Pakistani human rights lawyer and social activist, who co-founded and chaired the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. She was known for playing a prominent role in the Lawyers’ Movement and served as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief. In 1987, she cofounded  the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan and became its Secretary General until 1993 when she was elevated as commission’s chairperson. Serving as one of the leaders of the Lawyers’ Movement, she became Pakistan’s first woman to serve as the President of Supreme Court Bar Association.

Asma fought tirelessly for anyone and everyone without a voice. She was a fierce and powerful voice for the disenfranchised, for religious minorities, women, democracy advocates. She took on the powerful military, the intelligence services. She stood her ground against Islamic militants. Over the years Jahangir undertook human-rights missions for the United Nations. In Pakistan she had been criticized and distrusted among some Pakistanis for being too supportive of good relations with India on one hand and, on the other hand, for or not keeping the focus on Pakistan. When the news of Jahangir’s death on February 11 began to circulate, politicians from Pakistani President to leaders of political parties and personalities in the arts heaped praise on her. The media across the region commended her for her fearless campaigns against authoritarianism and discrimination.

Keywords: Pakistan, human rights, the United Nations special rapporteur on human rights, defence of most vulnerable groups of society, international recognition


DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060119

FEMALE FACE OF SLAVONIC STUDIES IN CHINA by Elena A. IKONNIKOVA, Dr.Sc. (Philology), Professor, Department of Russian and Foreign literature, Sakhalin State University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

The specialists on Russian literature, Chinese Zhao Xiaobin and Yang Yubo, answer the questions concerning the trends in translation of Russian literature of the first half of the XX century. The concept “Literary diplomacy” is noticed in the dialogue as the means of cooperation and deep perception of one nation by another through the translations of literary works. The names of Russian theorists of literature Victor Shklovsky, Roman Jakobson, Yury Lotman as well as the names of Russian writers, little known to the modern Chinese readers, Veniamin Kaverin, Lev Lunz, Vsevolod Ivanov are mentioned in the interview.

The main part of the interview is devoted to the origin of interest of Chinese Slavic scholars to Russian literature, the difficulties, whi  arose in the translation of Victor Shklovsky’s works into Chinese and particularly in the translation of the “philological novel” “Zoo. The letters not about love…”(1923). Studying the works of Russian theorists of literature by Chinese Slavic scholars is regarded as a promising area. Zhao Xiaobin and Yang Yubo prepare their own successors of young specialists on literature who plan to engage in literary works of the representatives of “The Serapion Brothers”.

Keywords: Russia, China, translation, theory of literature, literary diplomacy



 DOI: 10.7868/S0321507518060120

AFRICAN - AMERICANAH: ON COSTS OF ONE TRANSLATION INTO RUSSIAN LANGUAGE by Tatyana M. GAVRISTOVA, Dr.Sc. (History), Professor,  Department of General History, Faculty of History, P.G.Demidov  Yaroslavl  State  University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Review of the book: Adichi Сh.N. Americanah. Moscow, Phantom Press, 2018. 640 p. (In Russ.)

Keywords:  Chimamanda  Ngozi  Adichi,  writer, «Americanah», translation into Russian, Shashi Martynova, invective, vulgarization